IFM is carried out by an independent third party, often from civil society, by agreement with state authorities. The role of a monitor varies, but broadly it includes undertaking assessments of legal compliance and evaluating whether state authorities are fulfilling their responsibilities in the forest sector. This may entail monitoring of the processes for allocating timber concessions, of legality verification systems, and of systems for law enforcement (Brack & Leger, 2014).
IFM has been, or is being, implemented in a number of countries, in some cases driven by the negotiation of a Voluntary Partnership Agreement with the EU. They include: Cambodia, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Honduras, Indonesia, Nicaragua and the Republic of the Congo.